Why is Wi-Fi so much slower than wired connections?

Wi-Fi is probably used a lot more commonly these days than wired connections. The wireless 802.11 protocol was actually based on the Ethernet protocol (802.3).

Because data transmission processes are all decentralized, multiple access protocols are needed to minimize the number of collisions when there are a large number of hosts. There were the O.G.’s like Pure ALOHA, but CSMA/CD is probably the best protocol used for Ethernet connections.

But why doesn’t 802.11 also use CSMA/CD? This is because Wi-Fi devices use radio waves, and because of huge frequency differences between send frequencies and receive frequencies, they cannot send and receive at the same time. Thus Collision Detection (CD) becomes unviable.

This exact property slows down Wi-Fi performance because Wi-Fi uses Collision Avoidance (CA) and involves a lot of wait time periods for requests-to-send and permissions-to-send back-and-forth.

Knowledge from this reading: https://hpbn.co/wifi/#

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